Health Monitoring Program

Facility Control and Maintenance

Mice intended for export are housed in a strictly controlled barrier facility with limited access granted only to trained laboratory and animal care personnel via key card access. Personal protective equipment, including disposable gowns, shoe covers, gloves, hair bonnets, and masks, is required for entry into the facility. Animal care personnel are dedicated to the facility and/or room to ensure strict adherence to facility protocol. Mice are housed in positive-pressure, individually ventilated cages/units (IVC/U) that are changed every 1-2 weeks. Corncob bedding and paper nest enrichment are provided to the mice, and irradiated feed is supplied. Prior to use, all caging, bedding, and enrichment are autoclaved to ensure sterility. An Edstrom automatic watering system supplies processed water (reverse osmosis, chlorinated). Once mice leave the barrier facility, they cannot return.

Health Status

The mice housed in the GemPharmatech facility maintain a specified and opportunistic pathogen-free (SOPF) status or germ-free (GF) status. The health status of the animals is meticulously monitored through various methods, including the use of sentinel mice, random sampling within the colony, and exhaust air dusts (EAD) testing. Detailed information regarding these monitoring procedures is described below.

Sentinel mice: The health status of all colonies is monitored on a quarterly basis using sentinel mice. These sentinel cages contain two female mice aged between 4-6 weeks. Biweekly, the sentinel mice are exposed to soiled bedding collected from cages within their respective racks. The soiled bedding samples are pooled from multiple cages. Each rack unit contains 70 or 80 cages, and the sentinel mice are housed two per cage on each side of the rack unit. The results of these tests are reported as the number of positive samples out of the total number of testing samples. The health monitoring program includes necropsy examinations, detection of parasites, bacteria, and viruses.

Colony random sample testing: To detect any potential microbiological issues within the colony, live mice, feces, or oral swabs are randomly sampled from immunodeficient mice and large colonies such as C57BL/6, BALB/c ,NCG mice, etc.

EAD testing: Monthly, exhaust air dust is collected for pathogen detection through EAD testing.

Importing Animals

For imported mice, only animals that are specific pathogen-free (SPF) are accepted. However, they must undergo rederivation and testing before being released into the barrier facility. These animals are initially quarantined in isolators, and samples such as hair, feces, or serology samples are collected and submitted to the GemPharmatech microbial testing center for analysis. Only after passing microbial tests can the animals be transported to the breeding rooms via cesarean section or embryo transfer.

Mouse Thymic Virus (MTV) PCR
Ectromelia virus (Ect) PCR
Mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) ELISA
Sendai virus (SV) ELISA
Pneumonia virus of mice (PVM) ELISA
Reovirus-3 (Reo-3) ELISA/PCR
Minute virus of mice (MVM) PCR
Lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCMV) ELISA/PCR
Hantavirus (HV) ELISA/PCR
Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) ELISA/PCR
Mouse Adenovirus FL (MAD1) PCR
Mouse Adenovirus K87 (MAD 2) PCR
Polyoma Virus (POLY) ELISA/PCR
Mouse Parvovirus (MPV) PCR
Mouse Cytomegalovirus (MCMV) PCR
Murine Norovirus (MNV) PCR
Epizootic Diarrhea of Infant Mice (EDIM) PCR
K virus PCR
LDH elevating virus (LDV) PCR
Murine chapparvovirus (MKPV) PCR
Proteus mirabilis Culture
Pasteurella multocida Culture
Klebsiella oxytoca Culture
Filobacterium rodentium (CAR Bacillus) PCR
Helicobacter spp. (e.g. H. hepaticus, H. bilis, H. muridarum, H. rodentium) PCR
Pneumocystis spp. PCR
Citrobacter rodentium Culture
Bordetella Bronchus Culture
Mycoplasma spp. PCR
Salmonella spp. Culture
Mycoplasma pulmonis PCR
Corynebacterium kutscheri Culture
Tyzzer's organism PCR
Pasteurella pneumotropica (Rodentibacter pneumotropicus, Rodentibacter heylii) Culture
Klebsiella pneumoniae Culture
Staphylococcus aureus Culture
Pseudomonas aeruginosa Culture
Pathogenic dermal fungi PCR
Streptobacillus moniliformis Culture
Corynebacterium bovis PCR
Eimeria spp. Micro
Entamoeba Micro
Endoparasites (tapeworms, pinworms, and other helminths) Micro
Flagellatas (e.g. Giardia muris, Spironucleus muris, etc.) Micro
Toxoplasma gondii PCR
Ectoparasites, e.g., fleas, mites, and lice Micro
Ciliata Micro
Encephalitozoon cunicul PCR
OTHER Method
Pinworms PCR
Furmites PCR


Additionally, GemPharmatech partners with several respected institutions and organizations to breed and house mice. For information on the health monitoring and testing practices of these facilities, please contact us.